Monday, 19 October 2009

A BEGINNERS OF UNIX

I always listen that the people says that Linux is very hard OS (operating system) to work on it. But the truth is that Linux is as simple as if u know the command line of Linux  Linux is a UNIX based OS here i show you some simple basic commands of UNIX with hacking way & hop that will clear some of basic Hacking UNIX OS.

1. HOW TO TELL IF/IF NOT YOU ARE ON A UNIX SYSTEM: UNIX SYSTEMS ARE QUITE COMMON SYSTEMS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
THEIR SECURITY APPEARS AS SUCH:

LOGIN; (OR LOGIN;)
PASSWORD:

NOTE: WHEN HACKING ON A UNIX SYSTEM IT IS BEST TO USE LOWERCASE BECAUSE THE UNIX SYSTEM COMMANDS ARE ALL DONE IN LOWER- CASE.

2. LOGIN; IS A 1-8 CHARACTER FIELD. IT IS USUALLY THE NAME (I.E. ANISH OR INDIA) OF THE USER, OR INITIALS (I.E. M.ANISH OR L.INDIA). HINTS FOR LOGIN NAMES CAN BE FOUND TRASHING THE LOCATION OF THE DIAL-UP (USE YOUR CN/A TO FIND WHERE THE COMPUTER IS).
PASSWORD: IS A 1-8 CHARACTER PASSWORD ASSIGNED BY THE SYSOP OR CHOSEN BY THE USER.

COMMON DEFAULT LOGINS
--------------------------
LOGIN; PASSWORD:
ROOT ROOT,SYSTEM,ETC..
SYS SYS,SYSTEM
TEST TEST
UNIX UNIX
BIN BIN
IF YOU GUESS A LOGIN NAME AND YOU ARE NOT ASKED FOR A PASSWORD, AND HAVE ACCESSED TO THE SYSTEM, THEN YOU HAVE WHAT IS KNOWN AS A NON-GIFTED ACCOUNT. IF YOU GUESS A CORRECT LOGIN AND PASS- WORD, THEN YOU HAVE A USER ACCOUNT. AND, IF YOU GUESS THE ROOT PASSWORD, THEN YOU HAVE A "SUPER-USER" ACCOUNT.

3. ALL UNIX SYSTEMS HAVE THE FOLLOWING INSTALLED TO THEIR SYSTEM:
ROOT, SYS, BIN, DAEMON, UUCP, ADM
ONCE YOU ARE IN THE SYSTEM, YOU WILL
GET A PROMPT. COMMON PROMPTS ARE:
$
%
#


BUT CAN BE JUST ABOUT ANYTHING THE SYSOP OR USER WANTS IT TO BE.

4. THINGS TO DO WHEN YOU ARE IN: SOME OF THE COMMANDS THAT YOU MAY WANT TO TRY FOLLOW BELOW:

who is on (SHOWS WHO IS CURRENTLY LOGGED ON THE SYSTEM.)

ls -a (LIST ALL FILES IN CURRENT DIRECTORY.)

du -a (CHECKS AMOUNT OF MEMORY YOUR FILES USE;DISK USAGE)

cd\name (NAME IS THE NAME OF THE SUB-DIRECTORY YOU CHOOSE)

cd\ (BRINGS YOUR HOME DIRECTORY TO CURRENT USE)

cat name (NAME IS A FILENAME EITHER A PROGRAM OR DOCUMENTATION YOUR USERNAME HAS WRITTEN)

5. MOST UNIX PROGRAMS ARE WRITTEN IN THE C LANGUAGE OR PASCAL SINCE UNIX IS A PROGRAMMERS' ENVIRONMENT.
ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS DONE ON THE SYSTEM IS PRINT UP OR CAPTURE (IN A BUFFER) THE FILE CONTAINING ALL USER NAMES AND ACCOUNTS. THIS CAN BE DONE
BY DOING THE FOLLOWING COMMAND:

CAT /ETC/PASSWD

IF YOU ARE SUCCESSFUL YOU WILL A LIST OF ALL ACCOUNTS ON THE SYSTEM.IT SHOULD LOOK LIKE THIS:

ROOT:HVNSDCF:0:0:ROOT DIR:/:
ANISH:MAJDNFD:1:1:ANISH COOL:/BIN:/BIN/ANISH
INDIA::1:2:INDIA SMITH:/BIN:/BIN/INDIA

THE "ROOT" LINE TELLS THE FOLLOWING INFO :

LOGIN NAME =ROOT
HVNSDCF = ENCRYPTED PASSWORD
0 = USER GROUP NUMBER
0 = USER NUMBER
ROOT DIR = NAME OF USER
/ = ROOT DIRECTORY

IN THE ANISH LOGIN, THE LAST PART "/BIN/ANISH " TELLS US WHICH DIRECTORY IS HIS HOME DIRECTORY (ANISH) IS.

IN THE "INDIA" EXAMPLE THE LOGIN NAME IS FOLLOWED BY 2 COLONS, THAT MEANS THAT THERE IS NO PASSWORD NEEDED TO GET IN USING HIS NAME.




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